Stationary battery systems have a high potential for electrical risk, but the risks can be reduced with the implementation of simple design features. Stationary battery systems are traditionally used in telecommunications, switchgear systems, (MCC, substation, and generating station), UPS applications, and industrial control systems. The batteries in these systems are on constant float charge and only discharge in an emergency or unusual event. These DC systems are typically designed in accordance with IEEE standards 484, 1106, 1187, 1184, 1375, and 1635 and maintained in accordance with IEEE standards 450, 946, 1106, 1184, and 1188. This paper does not address cyclic applications such as photovoltaic systems or Bulk Energy Storage Systems, (BESS), although designers of these systems may find some of the items discussed in this paper desirable for their systems.

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